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Haematology and Oncology

Advances in the use of PARP inhibitor therapy for breast cancer

Authors: Kelly E McCann MD, PhD, Sara A Hurvitz MD

In the care of oncology patients, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are best known as a semitargeted treatment
for BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated ovarian and breast cancers, this article reviews the broader understanding of PARP biology that has spurred interest in expanding their clinical utility.

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Cutaneous side effects of molecularly targeted therapies for the treatment of solid tumors

Authors: Daniel I G Cubero MD, PhD, Beatrice Martinez Zugaib Abdalla MD, Jean Schoueri, Fabio Iazetti Lopes, Karine Corcione Turke, Jose Guzman MD, Auro Del Giglio MD, PhD, Carlos D’Apparecida Santos Machado Filho MD, PhD, Vanessa Salzano MD, Dolores Gonzalez Fabra MD

This article reviews the cutaneous side effects of main molecularly targeted cancer therapies for solid tumors.

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First-line alectinib for ALK-positive lung cancer: is there room for further improvement?

Authors: Alfredo Addeo MD, Giulio Metro MD

This editorial describes the therapeutic achievements in the treatment of patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

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Regorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma: latest evidence and clinical implications

Authors: Nicola Personeni MD, Tiziana Pressiani MD, Armando Santoro MD, Lorenza Rimassa MD

Over the past ten years, sorafenib has been the only systemic agent approved for first-line treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and in a second-line setting, most investigational drugs have failed to provide better survival outcomes than placebo. However, in 2016, data from the RESORCE trial, a phase 3 study evaluating regorafenib in HCC patients who experience disease progression after first-line treatment with sorafenib, have shown a 2.8-month median survival benefit over placebo (10.6 versus 7.8 months).

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Immunotherapy in renal cell carcinoma: latest evidence and clinical implications

Authors: Matteo Santoni MD, Francesco Massari MD, Vincenzo Di Nunno MD, Alessandro Conti MD, Alessia Cimadamore MD, Marina Scarpelli MD, Rodolfo Montironi PhD, Liang Cheng PhD, Nicola Battelli MD, Antonio Lopez-Beltran PhD

This editorial describes the results of the most recent clinical trials on the use of immunotherapies in renal cell carcinoma and research for reliable biomarkers of tumour response in this setting, as well as the role of the gut microbiome and tumour microenvironment in the development of future therapeutic strategies.

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