Paediatrics: how to manage scabies

Article Details

Authors
Russell Thompson, Sean Westbury, Dana Slape

Article Type
Review

DOI
10.7573/dic.2020-12-3

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Abstract

This narrative review addresses scabies, a highly contagious, pruritic infestation of the skin caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis. Scabies is a common disorder that has a prevalence worldwide estimated to be between 200 and 300 million cases per year. Infestation is of greatest concern in children, the elderly, immunocompromised people and resource-poor endemic populations at risk of chronic complications. A diagnosis of scabies involves a clinical suspicion, a detailed targeted history, clinical examination and contact tracing. Dermoscopy and microscopy, where available, is confirmatory. Due to its infectivity and transmissibility, the management for scabies requires a multimodal approach: topical antiscabetic agents are the first line for most cases of childhood classic scabies and their contacts, which must also be identified and treated to prevent treatment failure and reacquisition. Environmental strategies to control fomite-related reinfestation are also recommended. Oral ivermectin, where available, is reserved for use in high-risk cases in children or in mass drug administration programmes in endemic communities. The prevention of downstream complications of scabies includes surveillance, early identification and prompt treatment for secondary bacterial infections, often superficial but can be serious and invasive with associated chronic morbidity and mortality. Post-scabetic itch and psychosocial stigma are typical sequelae of the scabies mite infestation. The early identification of patients with scabies and treatment of their contacts reduces community transmission. Although time consuming and labour intensive for caregivers, the implementation of appropriate treatment strategies usually results in prompt cure for the child and their contacts. Here, we provide a summary of treatments and recommendations for the management of paediatric scabies.

Keywords: ivermectin, mites, permethrin, pruritus, scabies.

Citation: Thompson R, Westbury S, Slape D. Paediatrics: how to manage scabies. Drugs in Context 2021; 10: 2020-12-3. DOI: 10.7573/dic.2020-12-3

Contributions: All authors contributed equally to the preparation of this review. All named authors meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for this article, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, and have given their approval for this version to be published.

Disclosure and potential conflicts of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Potential Conflicts of Interests form for the authors is available for download at: https://www.drugsincontext.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/dic.2020-12-3-COI.pdf

Funding declaration: There was no funding associated with the preparation of this article.

Copyright: Copyright © 2021 Thompson R, Westbury S, Slape D. Published by Drugs in Context under Creative Commons License Deed CC BY NC ND 4.0 which allows anyone to copy, distribute, and transmit the article provided it is properly attributed in the manner specified below. No commercial use without permission.

Correct attribution: Copyright © 2021 Thompson R, Westbury S, Slape D. https://doi.org/10.7573/dic.2020-12-3. Published by Drugs in Context under Creative Commons License Deed CC BY NC ND 4.0.

Article URL: https://www.drugsincontext.com/paediatrics:-how-to-manage-scabies

Correspondence: Dana Slape, Department of Dermatology, Liverpool and Campbelltown Hospitals, South Western Sydney Local Health District, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Email: dana.slape@health.nsw.gov.au

Provenance: Invited; externally peer reviewed.

Submitted: 13 December 2020; Accepted: 7 February 2021; Publication date: 26 March 2021.

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