Paediatrics: how to manage viral gastroenteritis

Article Details

Authors
Alexander KC Leung, Kam Lun Hon

Article Type
Review

DOI
10.7573/dic.2020-11-7

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Abstract

Background: Viral gastroenteritis is the most common diarrhoeal disorder seen in general practice and emergency departments. This article aims to provide a narrative updated review on the evaluation and management of viral gastroenteritis in children.

Methods: A PubMed search was performed with Clinical Queries using the key term ‘viral gastroenteritis’. The search strategy included clinical trials, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, observational studies and reviews. The search was restricted to the English literature and the paediatric population.

Results: Acute viral gastroenteritis is usually self-limiting. However, it can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance if not properly treated. Adequate fluids containing physiological concentrations of glucose and electrolytes should be provided to compensate for gastrointestinal losses and cover maintenance needs. Oral rehydration therapy is as effective as intravenous (IV) fluid therapy for rehydration for children with mild-to-moderate dehydration. Measurements of serum electrolytes, creatinine and glucose are usually not necessary and should only be considered in a subset of children with severe dehydration who require hospitalization and IV therapy. Judicious use of ondansetron can increase the success rate of oral rehydration therapy and minimize the need for IV therapy and hospitalization.

Conclusion: Acute viral gastroenteritis is associated with substantial morbidity in developed countries and significant mortality in developing countries. Physicians should educate caregivers on proper personal hygiene and handwashing to prevent faecal to oral transmission of the pathogen as well as the importance of rotavirus vaccine in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Several norovirus vaccines are currently undergoing clinical trials with promising results. It is hoped that development of an effective norovirus vaccine will further reduce the incidence of viral gastroenteritis.

Keywords: dehydration, diarrhoea, gastroenteritis, ondansetron, oral rehydration, viral, vomiting.

Citation: Leung AKC, Hon KL. Paediatrics: how to manage viral gastroenteritis. Drugs in Context 2021; 10: 2020-11-7. DOI: 10.7573/dic.2020-11-7

Contributions: Professor Alexander KC Leung is the principal author. Professor Kam Lun Hon is a co-author who contributed and helped with the drafting of this manuscript. All named authors meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for this article, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole and have given their approval for this version to be published.

Disclosure and potential conflicts of interest: Professor Alexander KC Leung and Professor Kam Lun Hon are associate editors of Drugs in Context and guest editors of this series. They confirm that this article has no other conflicts of interest otherwise. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Potential Conflicts of Interests form for the authors is available for download at: https://www.drugsincontext.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/dic.2020-11-7-COI.pdf

Acknowledgements: None.

Funding declaration: There was no funding associated with the preparation of this article.

Copyright: Copyright © 2021 Leung AKC, Hon KL. Published by Drugs in Context under Creative Commons License Deed CC BY NC ND 4.0 which allows anyone to copy, distribute, and transmit the article provided it is properly attributed in the manner specified below. No commercial use without permission.

Correct attribution: Copyright © 2021 Leung AKC, Hon KL. https://doi.org/10.7573/dic.2020-11-7. Published by Drugs in Context under Creative Commons License Deed CC BY NC ND 4.0.

Article URL: https://www.drugsincontext.com/paediatrics:-how-to-manage-viral-gastroenteritis

Correspondence: Alexander KC Leung, The University of Calgary, The Alberta Children’s Hospital, #200, 233 – 16th Avenue NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2M 0H5. Email: aleung@ucalgary.ca

Provenance: Invited; externally peer reviewed.

Submitted: 30 November 2020; Accepted: 6 January 2021; Publication date: 26 March 2021.

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