New uses and formulations of glucagon for hypoglycaemia

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Abstract

Hypoglycaemia is the more frequent complication of insulin therapy and the main barrier to tight glycaemic control. Injectable glucagon and oral intake of carbohydrates are the recommended treatments for severe and non-severe hypoglycaemia episodes, respectively. Nasal glucagon is currently being developed as a ready-to-use device, to simplify severe hypoglycaemia rescue. Stable forms of liquid glucagon could open the field for different approaches for mild to moderate hypoglycaemia treatment, such as mini-doses of glucagon or continuous subcutaneous glucagon infusion as a part of dual-hormone closed-loop systems. Pharmaceutical companies are developing stable forms of native glucagon or glucagon analogues for that purpose.

Keywords: type 1 diabetes, glucagon, nasal glucagon, hypoglycaemia, dual-hormone artificial pancreas, exercise, mini-dose glucagon, injectable glucagon.

Citation: Beato-Víbora PI, Arroyo-Díez FJ. New uses and formulations of glucagon for hypoglycaemia. Drugs in Context 2019; 8: 212599. DOI: 10.7573/dic.212599

Contributions: Both authors contributed equally to the preparation of this review. Both named authors meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for this article, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, and have given their approval for this version to be published.

Disclosure and potential conflicts of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Potential Conflicts of Interests form for the authors is available for download at https://www.drugsincontext.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/dic.212599-COI.pdf

Acknowledgements: None.

Funding declaration: There was no funding associated with the preparation of this article.

Copyright: Copyright © 2019 Beato-Víbora PI, Arroyo-Díez FJ. https://doi.org/10.7573/dic.212599. Published by Drugs in Context under Creative Commons License Deed CC BY NC ND 4.0 which allows anyone to copy, distribute, and transmit the article provided it is properly attributed in the manner specified below. No commercial use without permission.

Correct attribution: Copyright © 2019 Beato-Víbora PI, Arroyo-Díez FJ. Published by Drugs in Context under Creative Commons License Deed CC BY NC ND 4.0.

Article URL: https://www.drugsincontext.com/new-uses-and-formulations-of-glucagon-for-hypoglycaemia/

Correspondence: Pilar I Beato-Víbora. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Paediatrics, Badajoz University Hospital, Badajoz, Spain. pilar.beato@salud-juntaex.es

Provenance: invited; externally peer reviewed.

Submitted: 9 May 2019; Peer review comments to author: 18 June 2019; Revised manuscript received: 23 June 2019; Accepted: 26 June 2019; Publication date: 30 July 2019.

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