Current treatment in COVID-19 disease: a rapid review

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Abstract

The world has faced the most challenging pandemic of the modern era, that of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, causing coronavirus disease and affecting over 35 million people globally. The wide range of clinical manifestations associated with this viral disease is thought to be related to the overexpression of inflammatory markers. Due to a dysregulated host response, the most severe form involves multi-organ failure and thromboembolic complications. Immunomodulatory therapies may help prevent its progression and anticoagulation has been shown to reduce the risk of thrombotic complications. As this is a new entity for the medical world, there are no known therapeutic options nor has the prevention of complications been established. Anti-inflammatory agents, antimicrobial therapy, and vitamin supplements are short of clear benefits, but there is limited data to review. Other agents, such as convalescent plasma, eculizumab, immunoglobulins, neutralizing IgG1 monoclonal antibodies, remdesivir, steroids, and tocilizumab, have shown a possible impact on inpatient length of stay and mortality rate. This review aims to assess the efficacy and safety of these available therapies in light of current evidence. We compare these treatment options based on their impact on symptom management, inpatient length of stay, and overall morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: convalescent plasma, COVID-19, eculizumab, immunoglobulins, neutralizing IgG1 monoclonal antibodies, remdesivir, SARS-CoV-2, steroids, tocilizumab.

Citation: Rodriguez-Guerra M, Jadhav P, Vittorio TJ. Current treatment in COVID-19 disease: a rapid review. Drugs in Context 2021; 10: 2020-10-3. DOI: 10.7573/dic.2020-10-3

Contributions: All authors contributed equally to the preparation of this review. All named authors meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for this article, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, and have given their approval for this version to be published.

Disclosure and potential conflicts of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Potential Conflicts of Interests form for the authors is available for download at: https://www.drugsincontext.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/dic.2020-10-3-COI.pdf

Acknowledgements: None.

Funding declaration: There was no funding associated with the preparation of this article.

Copyright: Copyright © 2021 Rodriguez-Guerra M, Jadhav P, Vittorio TJ. Published by Drugs in Context under Creative Commons License Deed CC BY NC ND 4.0 which allows anyone to copy, distribute, and transmit the article provided it is properly attributed in the manner specified below. No commercial use without permission.

Correct attribution: Copyright © 2021 Rodriguez-Guerra M, Jadhav P, Vittorio TJ. https://doi.org/10.7573/dic.2020-10-3. Published by Drugs in Context under Creative Commons License Deed CC BY NC ND 4.0.

Article URL: https://www.drugsincontext.com/current-treatment-in-covid-19-disease:-a-rapid-review

Correspondence: Timothy J Vittorio, BronxCare Hospital Center, Department of Medicine/Division of Cardiology, 1650 Grand Concourse, 12th Floor, Bronx, NY 10457, USA. tjvittorio@gmail.com

Provenance: Submitted; externally peer reviewed.

Submitted: 12 October 2020; Accepted: 11 December 2020; Publication date: 29 January 2021.

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