The treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harbouring EGFR mutations has witnessed some major breakthroughs in the last years. On the one hand, the recent advent of the third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) osimertinib has reshaped the therapeutic algorithm both in the first-line and adjuvant settings for patients with common activating Ex19del and L858R EGFR mutations. On the other hand, the availability of new comprehensive next-generation sequencing panels, to be used on tumour tissue or on liquid biopsy, has revealed the existence of uncommon as well as compound mutations that partially explain the onset of resistance. Nevertheless, dissecting the biological mechanisms underlying primary and secondary resistance to EGFR-TKIs is crucial to developing alternative therapeutic strategies and further improving patient outcomes. Herein, we provide an updated and comprehensive summary of the latest advancements in the quest for compounds targeting EGFR-mutant advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, discussing the biological rationale underlying the development of a forefront combination of TKI and/or new antibody–drug conjugates. We also suggest a treatment algorithm that could be followed considering the latest published data.
This article is part of the Treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: one size does not fit all Special Issue: https://www.drugsincontext.com/special_issues/treatment-of-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-one-size-does-not-fit-all/