Background: Few randomized controlled trials evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy for overactive bladder (OAB). This network meta-analysis compares the long-term (52-week) efficacy and safety of vibegron, mirabegron and anticholinergics for the treatment of OAB.
Methods: A systematic literature review and network meta-analysis were conducted following PRISMA guidelines using MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and terms related to OAB. Efficacy outcomes included change from baseline to week 48–52 in mean daily total urinary incontinence (UI) episodes, mean daily number of micturitions and volume voided/micturition. Efficacy outcomes were analysed using Bayesian models. Commonly reported adverse events (AEs) are described.
Results: Of 2098 hits retrieved, 5 publications and 1 study report describing 5 unique randomized controlled trials were included in the analyses. Mean (95% credible interval) change from baseline in total UI episodes for vibegron 75 mg (–2.2; –2.9 to –1.5) showed a significantly greater reduction than mirabegron 50 mg (–1.3; –1.9 to –0.8) and tolterodine 4 mg extended release (–1.6; –2.1 to –1.1). No significant differences were observed between vibegron and comparators for daily micturitions or volume voided/micturition. Within the manuscripts, the 4 most common AEs (range) for anticholinergics included dry mouth (5.2–90.0%), constipation (7.7–65.0%), blurred vision (3.8–35.0%) and hypertension (8.6–9.6%); the 4 most commonly reported AEs for β3-adrenergic agonists included hypertension (8.8–9.2%), urinary tract infection (5.9–6.6%), headache (5.5%) and nasopharyngitis (4.8–5.2%).
Conclusion: Vibegron was associated with significantly greater improvement in daily total UI episodes at 52 weeks than mirabegron and tolterodine. When reported, the most common AE for anticholinergics was dry mouth and for β3-adrenergic agonists was hypertension. Hypertension incidence was similar between drug classes.