Diuretic resistance and the role of albumin in congestive heart failure

Carol Fernandez Hazim, Gustavo Duarte, Ana P Urena, Swati Jain, Rishabh Mishra, Timothy J Vittorio, Miguel Rodriguez-Guerra


Diuresis with loop diuretics is the mainstay treatment for volume optimization in patients with congestive heart failure, in which perfusion and volume expansion play a crucial role. There are robust guidelines with extensive evidence for the management of heart failure; however, clear guidance is needed for patients who do not respond to standard diuretic treatment. Diuretic resistance (DR) can be defined as an insufficient quantity of natriuresis with proper diuretic therapy. A combination of diuretic regimens is used to overcome DR and, more recently, SGLT2 inhibitors have been shown to improve diuresis. Despite DR being relatively common, it is challenging to treat and there remains a notable lack of substantial data guiding its management. Moreover, DR has been linked with poor prognosis. This review aims to expose the multiple approaches for treatment of patients with DR and the importance of intravascular volume expansion in the response to therapy.

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Accepted: ; Published: .


Fernandez Hazim C, Duarte G, Urena AP, Jain S, Mishra R, Vittorio TJ, Rodriguez-Guerra M. Diuretic resistance and the role of albumin in congestive heart failure. Drugs Context. 2023;12:2023-6-5. https://doi.org/10.7573/dic.2023-6-5

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