Infectious disease: how to manage Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogen conundrums with dual beta-lactam therapy

Alireza FakhriRavari, Brenda Simiyu, Taylor Morrisette, Yewande Dayo, Jacinda C Abdul-Mutakabbir

Article Type



This article reviews the mechanisms of beta-lactam resistance in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, discusses the rationale for dual beta-lactam use against multidrug-resistant infections (and other scenarios in which this strategy may be most utilized in clinical practice), explores the available in vitro, in vivo and clinical data, and provides considerations for the use of dual beta-lactam therapy against Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacterales, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii pathogens.

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