Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the context of COVID-19

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Abstract

Chloroquine and closely related structural analogs, employed initially for the treatment of malaria, are now gaining worldwide attention due to the rapidly spreading pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2, named coronavirus disease (COVID) of 2019 (COVID-19). Although much of this attention has a mechanistic basis, the hard efficacy data for chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in the management of the clinical syndrome of COVID-19 have been limited thus far. This review aims to present the available in vitro and clinical data for the role of chloroquine/ hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 and attempts to put them into perspective, especially in relation to the different risks/benefits particular to each patient who may require treatment.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiviral, chloroquine, COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine, immunomodulatory, pandemic, SARS-CoV-2.

Citation: Shukla AM, Archibald LK, Wagle Shukla A, Mehta HJ, Cherabuddi K. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the context of COVID-19. Drugs in Context 2020; 9: 2020-4-5. DOI: 10.7573/dic.2020-4-5.

Contributions: Ashutosh Shukla was involved in the conception, execution, review, and critique of the manuscript; Lennox K Archibald was involved in the review and critique of the manuscript; Aparna Wagle Shukla was involved in the organization, review, and critique of the manuscript; Hiren Mehta was involved in the review and critique of the manuscript; Kartikeya Cherabuddi was involved in the organization, review, and critique of the manuscript. All named authors meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for this article, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, and have given their approval for this version to be published.

Disclosure and potential conflicts of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Potential Conflicts of Interests form for the authors is available for download at: https://www.drugsincontext.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/dic.2020-4-5-COI.pdf

Acknowledgements: Ashutosh Shukla reports the following VA Merit Grant supports from the Department of Veterans Affairs (I01CX001661: Management of cardiovascular disease in advanced CKD and I01HX002639: A system-wide strategy for KDE to improve the health and health services outcomes among Veterans). Aparna Wagle Shukla reports grants from the NIH and has received grant support from the Benign Essential Blepharospasm Research Foundation, Dystonia coalition, Dystonia Medical Research Foundation, and National Organization for Rare Disorders and grant support from NIH (KL2 and K23 NS092957-01A1).

Funding declaration: There was no funding associated with the preparation of this article.

Copyright: Copyright © 2020 Shukla AM, Archibald LK, Wagle Shukla A, Mehta HJ, Cherabuddi K. Published by Drugs in Context under Creative Commons License Deed CC BY NC ND 4.0 which allows anyone to copy, distribute, and transmit the article provided it is properly attributed in the manner specified below. No commercial use without permission.

Correct attribution: Copyright © 2020 Shukla AM, Archibald LK, Wagle Shukla A, Mehta HJ, Cherabuddi K. https://doi.org/10.7573/dic.2020-4-5. Published by Drugs in Context under Creative Commons License Deed CC BY NC ND 4.0.

Article URL: https://drugsincontext.com/chloroquine-and-hydroxychloroquine-in-the-context-of-covid-19

Correspondence: Ashutosh M Shukla, Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Transplantation, 1600 SW Archer Road, PO Box No., Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA. ashutosh.shukla@medicine.ufl.edu

Provenance: submitted; externally peer reviewed.

Submitted: 10 April 2020; Peer review comments to author: 14 April 2020; Revised manuscript received: 14 April 2020; Accepted: 15 April 2020; Publication date: 28 April 2020.

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