Latest research

Combination therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: adding empagliflozin to basal insulin

Combination therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: adding empagliflozin to basal insulin

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management is complex, with few patients successfully achieving recommended glycemic targets with monotherapy, most progressing to combination therapy, and many eventually requiring insulin. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are an emerging class of antidiabetes agents with an insulin-independent mechanism of action, making them suitable for use in combination with any other class of antidiabetes agents, including insulin. In this review the evaluates a 78-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial investigating the impact of empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, as add-on to basal insulin in patients with inadequate glycemic control on basal insulin, with or without metformin and/or a sulfonylurea.

Metastatic squamous cell non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC): disrupting the drug treatment paradigm with immunotherapies

Metastatic squamous cell non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC): disrupting the drug treatment paradigm with immunotherapies

Lung cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. This paper provides an overview of drug therapy options for squamous cell NSCLC with a focus on the evidence and clinical application of the anti-PD1 therapies. A comparison of the dosing, administration, indications, and differences in the measurement of PD-L1 expression in the clinical trials of nivolumab and pembrolizumab is also provided.

Antidepressant efficacy and side-effect burden: a quick guide for clinicians

Antidepressant efficacy and side-effect burden: a quick guide for clinicians

Prescribing of antidepressant treatment (ADT) for major depressive disorder (MDD) has increased substantially over the last two decades. In this paper, the authors discuss the evidence that supports the use of ADT based on FDA approvals, data from randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses and where these are not available, the authors discuss and apply theoretical pharmacodynamic principles to help guide treatment choice in MDD.

Alpha-2 receptor agonists for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder

Alpha-2 receptor agonists for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is thought to be related to a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system. Sometimes, use of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for PTSD, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) sertraline and paroxetine, may not lead to full remission and symptoms of hyperarousal may persist. In this article the authors review the literature on the alpha-2 receptor agonists clonidine and guanfacine for the treatment of PTSD and conclude that while the evidence base is limited, these agents might be considered useful when SSRIs fail in patients with PTSD.

Effect of variations in treatment regimen and liver cirrhosis on exposure to benzodiazepines during treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome

Effect of variations in treatment regimen and liver cirrhosis on exposure to benzodiazepines during treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome

Benzodiazepines (BDZ) are the drugs of choice to prevent the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Differences in treatment regimens, the choice of BDZ, as well as the presence of liver cirrhosis can substantially alter the exposure of patients to drugs used for AWS treatment so patients should be carefully monitored.