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Cardiology and cardiovascular disease

Closing the knowledge gap on cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial and beyond

Authors: Elif A Oral

This paper summarizes the results from the ground-breaking EMPA-REG OUTCOME study and discusses their significance and clinical implications.

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Anticoagulation for the prevention of stroke in non-valvular AF in general practice: room for improvement

Authors: Adam Ioannou, Sofia Metaxa, George Kassianos, Constantinos G Missouris

The aim of this study was to assess whether the recommendations and guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have been adopted in general practice (GP) in the UK. The authors concluded that one in four patients with non-valvular AF, at risk of a stroke, is not being adequately treated with an oral anticoagulant in primary care and suggest that a review of GP practice databases should be considered to identify patients with non-valvular AF, at risk of a disabling or fatal event, and measures taken to initiate anticoagulant therapy.

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The non-anticoagulation costs of atrial fibrillation management: findings from an observational study in NHS Primary Care

Authors: George Kassianos, Chris Arden, Simon Hogan, Laura Baldock, Ahmet Fuat

Atrial fibrillation (AF) management represents a significant burden on the UK NHS. In this article the authors review data from 825 patients in routine UK clinical practice and describe the non-anticoagulation costs associated with AF management. Understanding these costs better may help inform future health care planning and policy development.

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Optimizing glycemic control and minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes

Authors: Stanley S Schwartz

In this article the author argues that in type 2 diabetes, an approach that emphasizes diet and exercise and features a treatment regimen tailored to the needs of the individual to reach glycemic targets is warranted in most patients and provides microvascular and cardiovascular benefit, provided that hypoglycemia is avoided.

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Antithrombotic alternatives for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: critical differences and remaining questions

Authors: James S Kalus

Apixaban, dabigatran and rivaroxaban all have advantages over warfarin for stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation. In this article the author discusses the effect of organ dysfunction on drug disposition, drug–drug interaction potential, and other patient-centered factors to consider when selecting the right antithrombotic therapy for the patient.

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